Kidney stones are stone-like lumps that can develop in one or both of the kidneys. The medical name for stones in the kidneys is nephrolithiasis. If the stones cause severe pain, this is known as renal colic.
A kidney stone is a small stone, usually made up of calcium crystals, that forms inside the part of the kidney where urine collects. The stone usually causes little problem until it falls into the ureter, the tube that drains the kidney into the bladder, and causes an obstruction, preventing urine from draining out of the kidney and often causing severe pain.
One of the roles of the kidney is to remove waste from the body by filtering blood and making urine. That urine flows from the kidney into the bladder through the ureter, a thin tube that connects the two. The bladder empties through the urethra, a tube much wider than the ureter.
A variety of minerals and chemicals are excreted in the urine and sometimes these combine to form the beginning of a stone. Over time, this can grow from an invisible speck of sand into a stone that can be an inch in diameter or larger.
In an inguinal hernia, the intestine or the bladder protrudes through the abdominal wall or into the inguinal canal in the groin. About 80% of all hernias are inguinal, and most occur in men because of a natural weakness in this area. In an incisional hernia, the intestine pushes through the abdominal wall at the site of previous abdominal surgery. This type is most common in elderly or overweight people who are inactive after abdominal surgery.
A femoral hernia occurs when the intestine enters the canal carrying the femoral artery into the upper thigh. Femoral hernias are most common in women, especially those who are pregnant or obese. In an umbilical hernia, part of the small intestine passes through the abdominal wall near the navel. Common in newborns, it also commonly afflicts obese women or those who have had many children.
GALL BLADDER STONES
A Gallstone is a crystalline concretion formed within the gallbladder by accretion of bile components. These calculi are formed in the gallbladder but may distally pass into other parts of the biliary tract such as the cystic duct, common bile duct, pancreatic duct, or the ampulla of Vater. Rarely, in cases of severe inflammation, gallstones may erode through the gallbladder into adherent bowel potentially causing an obstruction termed gallstone ileus.
Presence of gallstones in the gallbladder may lead to acute cholecystitis, an inflammatory condition characterized by retention of bile in the gallbladder and often secondary infection by intestinal microorganisms, predominantly Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, and Bacteroides species. Presence of gallstones in other parts of the biliary tract can cause obstruction of the bile ducts, which can lead to serious conditions such as ascending cholangitis or pancreatitis. Either of these two conditions can be life-threatening and are therefore considered to be medical emergencies.